Medieval Healthcare and the Rise of Charitable Institutions: The History of the Municipal Hospital examines the development of medieval institutions of care, beginning with a survey of the earliest known hospitals in ancient times to the classical period, to the early Middle Ages, and finally to the explosion of hospitals in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries. For Western Christian medieval societies, institutional charity was a necessity set forth by the religion’s dictums—care for the needy and sick was a tenant of the faith, leading to a unique partnership between Christianity and institutional care that would expand into the fledging hospitals of the early Modern period. In this study, the hospital of Saint John in Brussels serves as an example of the developments. The institution followed the pattern of the establishment of medieval charitable institutions in the high Middle Ages, but diverged to become an archetype for later Christian hospitals.
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The majority of papers in this volume were originally presented at the eighth annual ‘Disease, Disability, and Medicine in Medieval Europe’ conference. The conference focused on infections, chronic illness, and the impact of infectious diseases on medieval society, including infection as a disability in the case of visible conditions, such as infected wounds, leprosy, syphilis, and tuberculosis. Using an interdisciplinary approach, this conference emphasised the importance of collaborative projects, novel avenues of research for treating infectious disease, and the value of considering medieval questions from the perspective of multiple disciplines. This volume aims to carry forward this interdisciplinary synergy by bringing together contributors from a variety of disciplines and from a diverse range of international institutions. Of note is the academic stage of the contributors in this volume. All the contributors were PhD candidates at the time of the conference, and the majority have completed or are in the final stages of completing their programmes at the time of this publication. The originality and calibre of research presented by these early career researchers demonstrates the promising future of the field, as well as the continued relevance of medieval studies for a wide range of disciplines and topics.
Foreword — Christina Lee
Introduction — Erin Connelly and Stefanie Künzel
Þu miht wiþ þam laþan ðe geond lond færð: Conceptualisations of Disease in Anglo-Saxon Charms — Stefanie Künzel
A Still Sound Mind: Personal Agency of Impaired People in Anglo-Saxon Care and Cure Narratives — Marit Ronen
Mobility Limitations and Assistive Aids in the Merovingian Burial Record — Cathrin Hähn
Tearing the Face in Grief and Rape: Cheek Rending in Medieval Iberia, c. 1000–1300 — Rachel Welsh
Clerical Leprosy and the Ecclesiastical Office: Dis/Ability and Canon Law — Ninon Dubourg
Inside the Leprosarium: Illness in the Daily Life of 14th Century Barcelona — Clara Jáuregui
Languages of Experience: Translating Medicine in MS Laud Misc — Lucy Barnhouse
Heillög Bein, Brotin Bein: Manifestations of Disease in Medieval Iceland — Cecilia Collins
A Case Study of Plantago in the Treatment of Infected Wounds in the Middle English Translation of Bernard of Gordon’s Lilium medicinae — Erin Connelly
Miserum spectaculum, horrendus fetor, aspectus horrendus: ‘Syphilis’ in Strasbourg at the Turn of the 16th Century — Christoph Wieselhuber
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Poison, Medicine, and Disease in Late Medieval and Early Modern Europe
Frederick W Gibbs
Features (from the editor website)
Challenges the standard histories of toxicology
Multi-faceted and innovative approach
Brings new perspectives to the study of the history of medicine
Summary (from the editor website)
This book presents a uniquely broad and pioneering history of premodern toxicology by exploring how late medieval and early modern (c. 1200–1600) physicians discussed the relationship between poison, medicine, and disease. Drawing from a wide range of medical and natural philosophical texts—with an emphasis on treatises that focused on poison, pharmacotherapeutics, plague, and the nature of disease—this study brings to light premodern physicians’ debates about the potential existence, nature, and properties of a category of substance theoretically harmful to the human body in even the smallest amount. Focusing on the category of poison (venenum) rather than on specific drugs reframes and remixes the standard histories of toxicology, pharmacology, and etiology, as well as shows how these aspects of medicine (although not yet formalized as independent disciplines) interacted with and shaped one another. Physicians argued, for instance, about what properties might distinguish poison from other substances, how poison injured the human body, the nature of poisonous bodies, and the role of poison in spreading, and to some extent defining, disease. The way physicians debated these questions shows that poison was far from an obvious and uncontested category of substance, and their effort to understand it sheds new light on the relationship between natural philosophy and medicine in the late medieval and early modern periods.
Submary from the editor website:
Trauma in Medieval Society is an edited collection of articles from a variety of scholars on the history of trauma and the traumatised in medieval Europe. Looking at trauma as a theoretical concept, as part of the literary and historical lives of medieval individuals and communities, this volume brings together scholars from the fields of archaeology, anthropology, history, literature, religion, and languages. The collection offers insights into the physical impairments from and psychological responses to injury, shock, war, or other violence—either corporeal or mental. From biographical to socio-cultural analyses, these articles examine skeletal and archival evidence as well as literary substantiation of trauma as lived experience in the Middle Ages.
Contributors are Carla L. Burrell, Sara M. Canavan, Susan L. Einbinder, Michael M. Emery, Bianca Frohne, Ronald J. Ganze, Helen Hickey, Sonja Kerth, Jenni Kuuliala, Christina Lee, Kate McGrath, Charles-Louis Morand Métivier, James C. Ohman, Walton O. Schalick, III, Sally Shockro, Patricia Skinner, Donna Trembinski, Wendy J. Turner, Belle S. Tuten, Anne Van Arsdall, and Marit van Cant.